Section 5: Earnings

This section presents statistics on earnings in the United States by disability status. The statistics describe the earnings of full-time, full-year workers with and without disabilities in the past 12 months, as well as differences (earnings gap) between these two populations. A person is considered a full-time, full-year worker if they worked 35 hours or more per week for 50 to 52 weeks in the past 12 months. Individuals who did not work in the last 12 months or who worked less than full-time, full-year are not included in these statistics. The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey. Statistics for people with disabilities (disability status) are based on having responded ‘yes’ to a series of questions (go to the glossary for more details). In addition, respondents are asked about total earnings. Earnings data is presented as percentiles (10%, 25%, 50% or median, 75%, and 90%) because earnings tend to be heavily skewed. This reduces the impact of outliers on the reported statistics.

Tables

Table 5.1: In 2022, for full-time, full-year workers with disabilities ages 18-64 living in the community, median earnings were $46,904. In contrast, among full-time, full-year workers without disabilities ages 18-64 living in the community, median earnings were $56,285, representing a median earnings gap of $-9,381. This earnings gap was lowest in state(s): Hawaii/HI, with a gap of $2,085; and highest in state(s): District of Columbia/DC, with a gap of $-15,635. Table 5.1 Earnings - Annual Median Earnings Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022

Table 5.2: In 2022, for full-time, full-year workers with disabilities ages 18-64 living in the community, mean earnings were $61,236. In contrast, among full-time, full-year workers without disabilities ages 18-64 living in the community, mean earnings were $76,190, representing a mean earnings gap of $-14,954. This earnings gap was lowest in state(s): Hawaii/HI, with a gap of $-2,765; and highest in state(s): Connecticut/CT, with a gap of $-28,611. Table 5.2 Earnings - Annual Mean Earnings Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022

Table 5.3: In 2022, for full-time, full-year workers with disabilities ages 18-64 living in the community, earnings for lowest earners (10th Percentile) were $16,677. In contrast, among full-time, full-year workers without disabilities ages 18-64 living in the community, earnings for lowest earners (10th Percentile) were $20,846, representing a earnings gap of $-4,169. This earnings gap was lowest in state(s): North Dakota/ND, with a gap of $1,251; and highest in state(s): District of Columbia/DC, with a gap of $-28,142. Table 5.3 Earnings - Annual Earnings For Lowest Earners (10th Percentile) Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022

Table 5.4: In 2022, for full-time, full-year workers with disabilities ages 18-64 living in the community, earnings for low earners (25th Percentile) were $31,269. In contrast, among full-time, full-year workers without disabilities ages 18-64 living in the community, earnings for low earners (25th Percentile) were $35,751, representing a earnings gap of $-4,482. This earnings gap was lowest in state(s): Hawaii/HI, with a gap of $0; and highest in state(s): District of Columbia/DC, with a gap of $-18,970. Table 5.4 Earnings - Annual Earnings For Low Earners (25th Percentile) Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022

Table 5.5: In 2022, for full-time, full-year workers with disabilities ages 18-64 living in the community, earnings for high earners (75th Percentile) were $72,962. In contrast, among full-time, full-year workers without disabilities ages 18-64 living in the community, earnings for high earners (75th Percentile) were $89,639, representing a earnings gap of $-16,677. This earnings gap was lowest in state(s): Alaska/AK, with a gap of $-2,085; and highest in state(s): Washington/WA, with a gap of $-22,931. Table 5.5 Earnings - Annual Earnings For High Earners (75th Percentile) Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022

Table 5.6: In 2022, for full-time, full-year workers with disabilities ages 18-64 living in the community, earnings for highest earners (90th Percentile) were $110,485. In contrast, among full-time, full-year workers without disabilities ages 18-64 living in the community, earnings for highest earners (90th Percentile) were $140,712, representing a earnings gap of $-30,227. This earnings gap was lowest in state(s): Hawaii/HI, with a gap of $-1,042; and highest in state(s): Washington/WA, with a gap of $-48,989. Table 5.6 Earnings - Annual Earnings For Highest Earners (90th Percentile) Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022

Table 5.1 Earnings - Annual Median Earnings Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022

Table 5.1 Earnings - Annual Median Earnings Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022
State Total Disability No Disability Gap $ P-Value
$ ME$ $ ME$ $ ME$
U.S. 54,200 1,042 46,904 1,042 56,285 1,042 −9,381 0.00
Alabama 46,904 2,085 40,650 4,795 47,946 2,085 −7,296 0.00
Alaska 62,539 6,254 62,539 17,719 62,539 7,296 0 0.82
Arizona 52,116 2,085 45,862 2,085 52,116 2,085 −6,254 0.00
Arkansas 44,611 1,251 41,692 4,378 44,819 2,085 −3,127 0.00
California 62,539 2,085 53,158 3,127 62,539 2,085 −9,381 0.00
Colorado 62,539 3,127 50,031 4,169 62,539 3,127 −12,508 0.00
Connecticut 67,750 3,127 54,200 8,338 67,750 3,127 −13,550 0.00
Delaware 56,285 3,127 48,259 9,068 56,285 3,127 −8,026 0.04
District of Columbia 93,808 5,212 78,173 18,762 93,808 5,212 −15,635 0.01
Florida 48,989 1,042 43,777 3,127 48,989 1,042 −5,212 0.00
Georgia 52,116 2,085 46,904 3,127 52,116 2,085 −5,212 0.00
Hawaii 55,242 2,085 57,327 6,254 55,242 2,085 2,085 0.85
Idaho 48,989 2,085 42,735 6,879 50,031 2,085 −7,296 0.05
Illinois 58,369 2,085 52,116 4,169 59,412 2,085 −7,296 0.00
Indiana 52,116 2,085 43,777 3,127 52,116 2,085 −8,338 0.00
Iowa 52,116 2,085 45,862 2,085 52,116 2,085 −6,254 0.00
Kansas 52,116 2,085 41,692 7,296 52,116 2,085 −10,423 0.00
Kentucky 47,946 2,085 41,901 3,961 48,989 1,251 −7,088 0.00
Louisiana 47,008 2,085 41,692 6,254 47,946 2,085 −6,254 0.00
Maine 52,116 2,085 46,904 5,212 53,158 2,085 −6,254 0.00
Maryland 67,750 3,127 60,454 2,085 67,750 3,127 −7,296 0.00
Massachusetts 72,962 2,085 62,539 6,254 72,962 2,085 −10,423 0.00
Michigan 53,158 1,042 44,819 3,127 54,200 2,085 −9,381 0.00
Minnesota 61,496 1,042 50,761 3,857 62,539 2,085 −11,778 0.00
Mississippi 41,692 2,085 37,523 4,169 43,256 1,563 −5,733 0.00
Missouri 50,031 2,085 41,692 5,212 51,803 1,772 −10,110 0.00
Montana 46,904 4,065 42,839 8,234 47,946 4,169 −5,107 0.05
Nebraska 52,116 2,085 46,070 6,045 52,116 2,085 −6,045 0.01
Nevada 50,031 2,085 42,214 6,150 50,031 2,085 −7,817 0.01
New Hampshire 62,539 5,212 50,031 7,296 62,539 5,212 −12,508 0.00
New Jersey 67,750 2,085 60,454 6,254 67,750 2,085 −7,296 0.00
New Mexico 46,904 3,127 41,692 5,733 47,946 2,814 −6,254 0.01
New York 62,539 2,085 52,116 4,169 62,539 2,085 −10,423 0.00
North Carolina 52,116 2,085 44,819 3,127 52,116 2,085 −7,296 0.00
North Dakota 52,116 3,127 46,904 6,254 53,158 2,085 −6,254 0.02
Ohio 53,158 1,042 43,777 3,127 54,200 2,085 −10,423 0.00
Oklahoma 46,174 1,355 38,670 3,023 46,904 2,085 −8,234 0.00
Oregon 57,327 2,085 46,904 4,482 57,327 3,127 −10,423 0.00
Pennsylvania 57,327 1,042 46,904 4,899 57,327 1,042 −10,423 0.00
Rhode Island 60,454 3,127 47,946 6,254 62,539 5,212 −14,592 0.00
South Carolina 48,989 1,042 41,692 5,212 49,822 1,876 −8,130 0.00
South Dakota 47,946 2,085 44,819 7,296 47,946 2,085 −3,127 0.29
Tennessee 48,572 1,459 41,692 4,169 48,989 1,042 −7,296 0.00
Texas 52,116 2,085 44,819 2,085 52,116 2,085 −7,296 0.00
Utah 56,285 1,042 46,904 5,212 57,327 3,127 −10,423 0.00
Vermont 57,327 5,212 41,692 7,609 57,327 5,212 −15,635 0.00
Virginia 62,539 2,085 57,327 5,212 62,539 2,085 −5,212 0.00
Washington 67,750 3,127 55,242 3,127 67,750 3,127 −12,508 0.00
West Virginia 46,904 3,127 41,692 6,254 46,904 3,127 −5,212 0.04
Wisconsin 53,158 1,042 47,946 4,169 54,200 2,085 −6,254 0.00
Wyoming 52,116 5,212 46,904 10,423 52,116 5,212 −5,212 0.24
Puerto Rico 25,015 1,042 24,703 2,606 25,015 1,042 −313 0.73
Notes: Authors’ calculations using the U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, Public Use Microdata Sample, (2022), which is subject to sampling variability. A person is considered a full-time, full-year worker if they worked 35 hours of more per week for 50 to 52 weeks in the past 12 months. Rank Score test p-values are based on the wage gap. The smaller the p-value, the more certain the estimated gap is different than zero.
Citation: Thomas, N., Paul, S., Bach, S., & Houtenville, A. (2024). Annual Disability Statistics Compendium: 2024 (Table 5.1). Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Institute on Disability.

Table 5.2 Earnings - Annual Mean Earnings Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022

Table 5.2 Earnings - Annual Mean Earnings Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022
State Total Disability No Disability Gap $ P-Value
$ ME$ $ ME$ $ ME$
U.S. 75,342 203 61,236 682 76,190 208 −14,954 0.00
Alabama 61,828 1,055 52,686 5,253 62,530 1,182 −9,844 0.00
Alaska 75,138 4,030 68,812 11,342 75,609 4,250 −6,797 0.27
Arizona 69,912 1,106 60,353 3,724 70,558 1,206 −10,205 0.00
Arkansas 58,143 1,345 48,328 4,209 58,913 1,477 −10,585 0.00
California 87,756 632 74,284 3,084 88,397 646 −14,113 0.00
Colorado 82,286 1,224 64,104 3,540 83,389 1,293 −19,285 0.00
Connecticut 93,344 2,405 65,965 4,875 94,576 2,557 −28,611 0.00
Delaware 70,922 2,735 57,730 8,435 71,665 2,886 −13,935 0.00
District of Columbia 119,641 4,103 98,707 24,005 120,696 4,075 −21,989 0.08
Florida 67,632 736 61,079 2,929 67,990 757 −6,911 0.00
Georgia 70,402 821 59,040 2,854 71,100 844 −12,060 0.00
Hawaii 70,358 2,217 67,753 8,526 70,517 2,422 −2,765 0.56
Idaho 63,532 1,618 52,372 5,235 64,370 1,746 −11,998 0.00
Illinois 78,997 1,009 63,041 2,883 79,811 1,072 −16,770 0.00
Indiana 65,934 1,081 54,262 3,108 66,735 1,125 −12,473 0.00
Iowa 65,325 1,576 54,359 4,327 65,978 1,660 −11,620 0.00
Kansas 65,697 1,671 51,429 5,417 66,749 1,760 −15,320 0.00
Kentucky 62,755 1,476 51,448 3,829 63,679 1,530 −12,231 0.00
Louisiana 60,400 1,166 50,671 3,985 61,179 1,222 −10,508 0.00
Maine 66,642 2,631 55,870 7,643 67,326 2,669 −11,456 0.00
Maryland 84,850 1,170 71,286 4,225 85,615 1,217 −14,328 0.00
Massachusetts 97,113 1,649 84,224 8,572 97,717 1,675 −13,493 0.00
Michigan 69,035 739 56,278 3,037 69,793 761 −13,515 0.00
Minnesota 78,341 1,464 64,243 6,328 79,096 1,477 −14,852 0.00
Mississippi 54,480 1,305 45,349 3,909 55,246 1,410 −9,897 0.00
Missouri 64,595 1,052 52,291 3,287 65,452 1,115 −13,161 0.00
Montana 61,483 3,164 57,802 14,021 61,728 3,145 −3,926 0.58
Nebraska 64,844 2,234 55,976 6,564 65,419 2,327 −9,444 0.01
Nevada 65,274 1,580 56,345 4,089 65,993 1,689 −9,649 0.00
New Hampshire 81,314 2,887 67,486 8,731 82,114 3,131 −14,628 0.00
New Jersey 93,751 1,103 80,365 6,285 94,348 1,141 −13,983 0.00
New Mexico 61,967 1,633 48,591 5,087 63,127 1,682 −14,536 0.00
New York 89,079 1,113 68,409 3,012 90,058 1,151 −21,649 0.00
North Carolina 69,120 976 57,174 3,235 69,831 1,016 −12,657 0.00
North Dakota 63,473 3,429 53,525 10,729 64,023 3,537 −10,498 0.06
Ohio 69,163 829 55,079 2,684 70,065 839 −14,986 0.00
Oklahoma 59,704 1,412 48,462 2,855 60,771 1,507 −12,308 0.00
Oregon 74,575 1,490 58,913 3,047 75,700 1,589 −16,788 0.00
Pennsylvania 73,903 801 58,973 3,138 74,839 853 −15,866 0.00
Rhode Island 74,027 2,308 59,645 8,357 74,860 2,457 −15,216 0.00
South Carolina 65,045 1,457 57,585 5,960 65,512 1,457 −7,928 0.01
South Dakota 59,867 3,251 51,736 9,869 60,362 3,324 −8,626 0.09
Tennessee 63,718 916 54,440 5,005 64,319 927 −9,879 0.00
Texas 70,168 566 57,731 1,711 70,996 637 −13,265 0.00
Utah 73,913 1,429 58,901 3,750 74,938 1,476 −16,037 0.00
Vermont 66,600 3,133 50,476 7,709 67,741 3,270 −17,265 0.00
Virginia 83,492 1,082 70,288 2,930 84,289 1,159 −14,001 0.00
Washington 92,882 1,391 71,815 4,411 94,275 1,500 −22,460 0.00
West Virginia 61,006 1,893 52,587 6,273 61,600 1,985 −9,013 0.01
Wisconsin 69,007 1,316 58,310 4,049 69,609 1,379 −11,299 0.00
Wyoming 63,550 3,168 55,643 7,874 64,138 3,433 −8,495 0.06
Puerto Rico 34,561 997 31,909 3,146 34,800 1,050 −2,890 0.09
Notes: Authors’ calculations using the U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, Public Use Microdata Sample, (2022), which is subject to sampling variability. A person is considered a full-time, full-year worker if they worked 35 hours of more per week for 50 to 52 weeks in the past 12 months. T-test p-values are based on the wage gap. The smaller the p-value, the more certain the estimated gap is different than zero.
Citation: Thomas, N., Paul, S., Bach, S., & Houtenville, A. (2024). Annual Disability Statistics Compendium: 2024 (Table 5.2). Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Institute on Disability.

Table 5.3 Earnings - Annual Earnings For Lowest Earners (10th Percentile) Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022

Table 5.3 Earnings - Annual Earnings For Lowest Earners (10th Percentile) Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022
State Total Disability No Disability Gap $ P-Value
$ ME$ $ ME$ $ ME$
U.S. 20,846 625 16,677 1,042 20,846 730 −4,169 0.00
Alabama 17,719 1,042 13,550 3,127 18,240 1,042 −4,690 0.01
Alaska 20,846 5,212 13,029 13,029 20,846 5,212 −7,817 0.18
Arizona 21,680 1,251 18,762 5,212 22,410 1,563 −3,648 0.01
Arkansas 18,762 2,085 14,592 6,254 19,804 2,085 −5,212 0.16
California 20,846 1,042 15,635 3,127 20,846 1,042 −5,212 0.00
Colorado 25,015 1,042 20,221 4,273 26,058 1,147 −5,837 0.00
Connecticut 26,058 2,085 18,970 9,798 26,058 2,085 −7,088 0.00
Delaware 23,973 2,085 14,592 14,592 24,494 2,606 −9,902 0.11
District of Columbia 37,523 4,169 12,508 13,550 40,650 4,169 −28,142 0.00
Florida 18,762 1,042 16,677 2,085 18,970 1,042 −2,293 0.02
Georgia 20,012 938 17,302 2,710 20,846 1,147 −3,544 0.01
Hawaii 20,846 2,397 20,846 10,423 20,846 2,606 0 0.79
Idaho 19,804 1,876 14,592 9,589 19,804 1,876 −5,212 0.31
Illinois 25,015 1,042 19,804 3,231 25,015 1,042 −5,212 0.00
Indiana 21,889 1,042 17,719 3,127 22,514 1,459 −4,795 0.00
Iowa 20,846 2,085 20,846 4,169 20,846 2,085 0 0.63
Kansas 18,762 2,085 12,508 5,212 19,804 1,251 −7,296 0.02
Kentucky 19,804 1,042 15,635 3,127 19,804 1,042 −4,169 0.01
Louisiana 15,635 1,980 12,508 3,127 15,635 2,085 −3,127 0.08
Maine 23,973 2,085 18,762 18,762 24,599 1,668 −5,837 0.21
Maryland 25,015 1,042 20,534 4,273 25,015 1,042 −4,482 0.00
Massachusetts 27,100 2,085 26,058 4,169 27,100 2,085 −1,042 0.28
Michigan 20,846 1,876 18,762 3,752 20,846 1,876 −2,085 0.01
Minnesota 26,058 2,085 20,846 5,212 26,058 2,085 −5,212 0.08
Mississippi 15,635 2,085 10,423 4,169 15,635 2,085 −5,212 0.01
Missouri 20,846 1,980 17,719 2,710 20,846 1,980 −3,127 0.01
Montana 15,635 3,127 15,635 15,635 15,635 3,231 0 0.96
Nebraska 20,846 2,918 18,762 4,169 20,846 3,127 −2,085 0.46
Nevada 20,846 2,085 20,846 3,127 20,846 2,085 0 0.95
New Hampshire 26,058 3,127 20,846 5,212 26,058 3,231 −5,212 0.12
New Jersey 25,432 625 21,889 3,127 26,058 1,042 −4,169 0.02
New Mexico 16,677 2,085 10,423 10,423 17,824 2,189 −7,400 0.01
New York 23,139 834 20,846 3,127 23,869 938 −3,023 0.00
North Carolina 20,846 1,042 19,804 4,169 20,846 1,042 −1,042 0.16
North Dakota 15,635 5,212 16,885 16,885 15,635 5,212 1,251 0.57
Ohio 21,889 1,042 18,762 3,127 22,722 1,459 −3,961 0.00
Oklahoma 16,677 2,085 14,592 2,085 17,719 2,085 −3,127 0.02
Oregon 22,931 1,459 20,846 4,169 22,931 1,563 −2,085 0.11
Pennsylvania 22,931 1,459 17,719 3,127 23,452 1,459 −5,733 0.00
Rhode Island 21,055 3,961 20,846 6,045 21,889 4,169 −1,042 0.12
South Carolina 18,970 1,876 15,635 4,169 19,804 1,042 −4,169 0.04
South Dakota 18,240 2,606 15,947 15,739 18,762 3,127 −2,814 0.74
Tennessee 18,762 1,251 12,508 3,127 18,762 1,355 −6,254 0.00
Texas 16,885 834 13,029 1,563 17,719 1,042 −4,690 0.00
Utah 25,015 1,042 21,889 4,690 25,015 1,042 −3,127 0.18
Vermont 23,973 3,127 20,846 15,635 24,807 3,961 −3,961 0.33
Virginia 22,514 834 17,094 3,231 22,931 1,042 −5,837 0.00
Washington 26,475 1,668 23,973 3,127 27,100 2,085 −3,127 0.03
West Virginia 20,846 2,085 16,677 4,169 20,846 2,085 −4,169 0.31
Wisconsin 23,660 1,772 20,846 3,440 23,973 1,042 −3,127 0.01
Wyoming 20,846 3,857 15,635 10,423 20,846 4,169 −5,212 0.05
Puerto Rico 10,840 1,459 4,690 6,775 11,257 1,355 −6,567 0.16
Notes: Authors’ calculations using the U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, Public Use Microdata Sample, (2022), which is subject to sampling variability. A person is considered a full-time, full-year worker if they worked 35 hours of more per week for 50 to 52 weeks in the past 12 months. Rank Score test p-values are based on the wage gap. The smaller the p-value, the more certain the estimated gap is different than zero.
Citation: Thomas, N., Paul, S., Bach, S., & Houtenville, A. (2024). Annual Disability Statistics Compendium: 2024 (Table 5.3). Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Institute on Disability.

Table 5.4 Earnings - Annual Earnings For Low Earners (25th Percentile) Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022

Table 5.4 Earnings - Annual Earnings For Low Earners (25th Percentile) Full-time, Full-year Civilian Workers Age 18-64, by Disability Status (in 2022 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars): 2022
State Total Disability No Disability Gap $ P-Value
$ ME$ $ ME$ $ ME$
U.S. 35,439 521 31,269 1,042 35,751 521 −4,482 0.00
Alabama 30,435 1,251 26,058 3,231 31,269 1,251 −5,212 0.01
Alaska 36,481 5,212 31,269 13,550 36,481 5,212 −5,212 0.26
Arizona 35,960 521 31,269 2,085 36,481 1,042 −5,212 0.00
Arkansas 30,227 1,042 27,100 4,169 30,852 1,668 −3,752 0.04
California 36,481 1,042 31,269 2,085 36,481 1,042 −5,212 0.00
Colorado 41,171 1,563 31,895 3,544 41,692 2,085 −9,798 0.00
Connecticut 41,692 2,397 33,354 6,254 41,692 2,814 −8,338 0.00
Delaware 36,481 3,127 31,269 8,338 36,481 3,127 −5,212 0.21
District of Columbia 62,539 4,169 43,569 19,283 62,539 5,212 −18,970 0.00
Florida 31,269 1,042 29,185 2,085 31,269 1,042 −2,085 0.00
Georgia 31,686 834 31,269 2,293