Section 2: Functioning

This section expands upon Section 1: Population and Prevalence to provide more details about prevalence by disability types. Here, the prevalence of people with multiple disability types, specifically those who have a functional limitation (vision, hearing, ambulatory, or cognitive disabilities) as well as an activity of daily living disability (self-care disabilities) and/or an instrumental activity of daily living disability (independent living disabilities). Self-Care disabilities are defined as difficulties with activities that promote well-being and health, such as bathing or dressing. Independent living disabilities are defined as difficulties with doing activities alone that promote self-determination and self-respect, such as visiting a doctor’s office or shopping. Activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living can be proxies for whether the environment is enabling or disabiling. For example, a person with vision disabilities may identify as also having self-care disabilities in an unsupportive environment but may not report a self-care disability in an environment with adequate accommodation. Self-Care and independent living disabilities can occur at the same time or exclusive of one another (e.g. an individual can have difficulties bathing but is able to go shopping alone).

The source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey. Statistics for people with disabilities (disability status or disability type) are based on having responded ‘yes’ to a series of questions within the American Community Survey (go to the glossary for more details). Please note that this section focuses on people ages 18-64.

Tables

Table 2.1: In 2022, in the United States an estimated 629,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community had both vision disabilities and self-care disabilities (14.9%); 1,153,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community had both vision disabilities and independent living disabilities (27.3%). Table 2.1 Functioning - Civilians with Vision Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have either Self-Care or Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022

Table 2.2: In 2022, in the United States an estimated 542,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community had vision disabilities and both self-care disabilities and independent living disabilities (12.8%); 87,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community with vision disabilities had self-care disabilities but not independent living disabilities (2.1%); 611,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community with vision disabilities had independent living disabilities but not self-care disabilities (14.5%). Table 2.2 Functioning - Civilians with Vision Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have Both or Only Self-Care and Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022

Table 2.3: In 2022, in the United States an estimated 469,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community had both hearing disabilities and self-care disabilities (11.7%); 794,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community had both hearing disabilities and independent living disabilities (19.8%). Table 2.3 Functioning - Civilians with Hearing Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have either Self-Care or Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022

Table 2.4: In 2022, in the United States an estimated 388,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community had hearing disabilities and both self-care disabilities and independent living disabilities (9.7%); 81,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community with hearing disabilities had self-care disabilities but not independent living disabilities (2%); 406,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community with hearing disabilities had independent living disabilities but not self-care disabilities (10.1%). Table 2.4 Functioning - Civilians with Hearing Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have Both or Only Self-Care and Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022

Table 2.5: In 2022, in the United States an estimated 2,717,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community had both ambulatory disabilities and self-care disabilities (30.8%); 3,892,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community had both ambulatory disabilities and independent living disabilities (44.1%). Table 2.5 Functioning - Civilians with Ambulatory Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have either Self-Care or Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022

Table 2.6: In 2022, in the United States an estimated 2,204,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community had ambulatory disabilities and both self-care disabilities and independent living disabilities (24.9%); 513,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community with ambulatory disabilities had self-care disabilities but not independent living disabilities (5.8%); 1,688,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community with ambulatory disabilities had independent living disabilities but not self-care disabilities (19.1%). Table 2.6 Functioning - Civilians with Ambulatory Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have Both or Only Self-Care and Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022

Table 2.7: In 2022, in the United States an estimated 1,872,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community had both cognitive disabilities and self-care disabilities (18%); 4,771,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community had both cognitive disabilities and independent living disabilities (45.8%). Table 2.7 Functioning - Civilians with Cognitive Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have either Self-Care or Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022

Table 2.8: In 2022, in the United States an estimated 1,669,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community had cognitive disabilities and both self-care disabilities and independent living disabilities (16%); 203,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community with cognitive disabilities had self-care disabilities but not independent living disabilities (1.9%); 3,102,000 civilians ages 18-64 living in the community with cognitive disabilities had independent living disabilities but not self-care disabilities (29.8%). Table 2.8 Functioning - Civilians with Cognitive Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have Both or Only Self-Care and Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022

Table 2.1 Functioning - Civilians with Vision Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have either Self-Care or Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022

Table 2.1 Functioning - Civilians with Vision Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have either Self-Care or Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022
State Total With Self-Care Dis. With Independent Living Dis.
# ME# # ME# % ME% # ME# % ME%
U.S. 4,228,000 61,000 629,000 25,000 14.9 0.6 1,153,000 31,000 27.3 0.6
Alabama 94,000 9,000 14,000 3,000 14.4 2.7 27,000 4,000 28.1 4.0
Alaska 11,000 4,000 2,000 1,300 14.0 8.4 2,000 1,000 18.2 8.5
Arizona 98,000 8,000 10,000 2,000 10.2 2.4 19,000 4,000 19.4 3.1
Arkansas 63,000 6,000 11,000 2,000 17.2 3.4 19,000 3,000 30.1 4.1
California 450,000 17,000 71,000 7,000 15.9 1.4 113,000 9,000 25.1 1.7
Colorado 61,000 7,000 7,000 3,000 12.2 3.6 15,000 3,000 24.5 4.5
Connecticut 38,000 6,000 6,000 2,000 16.0 5.1 11,000 3,000 28.2 6.8
Delaware 11,000 4,000 2,000 2,000 22.5 14.3 3,000 2,000 29.4 13.1
District of Columbia 8,000 3,000 800 1,200 10.2 11.4 2,000 1,400 21.4 13.8
Florida 248,000 14,000 35,000 6,000 14.0 2.1 63,000 7,000 25.4 2.5
Georgia 146,000 11,000 17,000 4,000 11.7 2.4 43,000 6,000 29.1 3.1
Hawaii 18,000 5,000 4,000 2,000 22.4 9.2 7,000 3,000 36.9 11.0
Idaho 30,000 4,000 5,000 2,000 16.7 6.3 9,000 3,000 30.0 8.0
Illinois 144,000 10,000 23,000 5,000 15.9 3.1 38,000 6,000 26.1 3.2
Indiana 88,000 8,000 11,000 3,000 13.0 2.6 27,000 5,000 30.3 3.8
Iowa 31,000 5,000 2,000 2,000 8.0 3.5 6,000 2,000 19.3 6.0
Kansas 39,000 6,000 6,000 3,000 16.2 5.8 11,000 3,000 28.7 6.1
Kentucky 89,000 9,000 12,000 3,000 13.2 2.9 22,000 4,000 25.2 3.4
Louisiana 88,000 10,000 13,000 3,000 14.6 3.6 25,000 4,000 28.5 3.7
Maine 14,000 3,000 2,000 1,300 12.3 7.7 5,000 2,000 35.4 9.2
Maryland 59,000 7,000 8,000 3,000 14.4 3.8 19,000 4,000 32.9 5.1
Massachusetts 70,000 8,000 11,000 3,000 16.3 3.1 23,000 4,000 32.2 4.6
Michigan 116,000 9,000 20,000 4,000 17.6 2.9 35,000 5,000 30.4 3.4
Minnesota 48,000 6,000 10,000 3,000 20.8 6.1 16,000 4,000 33.2 7.1
Mississippi 75,000 7,000 12,000 4,000 15.4 3.8 23,000 4,000 31.2 4.3
Missouri 87,000 8,000 17,000 3,000 19.6 3.3 28,000 4,000 32.3 3.4
Montana 14,000 4,000 2,000 1,200 12.2 6.2 3,000 1,000 23.4 7.9
Nebraska 18,000 3,000 1,000 1,000 8.0 4.8 4,000 2,000 24.5 9.5
Nevada 54,000 8,000 9,000 3,000 17.2 4.4 15,000 4,000 28.6 4.7
New Hampshire 12,000 3,000 2,000 2,000 18.9 9.0 4,000 2,000 32.1 11.3
New Jersey 97,000 8,000 12,000 3,000 12.4 2.9 20,000 4,000 20.4 3.8
New Mexico 41,000 6,000 8,000 3,000 19.1 5.9 13,000 3,000 31.0 7.3
New York 213,000 13,000 33,000 5,000 15.8 2.1 62,000 7,000 29.2 2.6
North Carolina 144,000 10,000 23,000 4,000 15.8 2.7 37,000 4,000 25.7 2.6
North Dakota 6,000 2,000 2,000 1,800 26.9 19.4 3,000 2,100 43.7 17.1
Ohio 134,000 10,000 16,000 2,000 11.9 1.8 37,000 5,000 27.4 3.0
Oklahoma 87,000 8,000 10,000 2,000 11.4 2.4 23,000 4,000 26.3 3.6
Oregon 56,000 6,000 11,000 3,000 20.3 5.0 19,000 4,000 33.6 4.7
Pennsylvania 162,000 14,000 25,000 5,000 15.5 2.7 49,000 10,000 30.5 4.2
Rhode Island 13,000 3,000 2,000 1,400 13.6 9.3 2,000 1,100 13.6 6.6
South Carolina 74,000 7,000 11,000 3,000 14.8 3.4 21,000 4,000 27.9 4.6
South Dakota 8,000 3,000 1,000 1,000 16.3 11.7 2,000 2,000 27.3 11.4
Tennessee 114,000 10,000 16,000 4,000 13.6 2.9 32,000 5,000 28.2 3.4
Texas 441,000 19,000 67,000 8,000 15.1 1.8 108,000 10,000 24.6 2.0
Utah 29,000 5,000 3,000 1,000 9.3 3.7 7,000 2,000 25.2 6.6
Vermont 7,000 2,000 400 300 5.9 3.8 1,000 1,000 17.5 10.3
Virginia 96,000 8,000 14,000 4,000 14.9 3.5 26,000 4,000 27.1 3.8
Washington 89,000 9,000 15,000 4,000 16.4 3.5 26,000 5,000 29.5 4.0
West Virginia 34,000 5,000 6,000 2,000 17.0 5.2 12,000 3,000 34.6 5.9
Wisconsin 52,000 7,000 5,000 2,000 10.2 3.1 15,000 4,000 28.2 5.6
Wyoming 7,000 2,000 800 1,200 11.2 10.3 1,000 1,000 18.5 10.2
Puerto Rico 106,000 8,000 15,000 3,000 13.8 2.5 25,000 4,000 23.5 3.0
Notes: Authors’ calculations using the U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, Public Use Microdata Sample, (2022), which is subject to sampling variability. Slight differences in percentages may appear due to rounding when compared to populations. The margin of error (ME) is based on a 95% confidence level and is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the margin of error is in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate.
Citation: Thomas, N., Paul, S., Bach, S., & Houtenville, A. (2024). Annual Disability Statistics Compendium: 2024 (Table 2.1). Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Institute on Disability.

Table 2.2 Functioning - Civilians with Vision Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have Both or Only Self-Care and Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022

Table 2.2 Functioning - Civilians with Vision Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have Both or Only Self-Care and Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022
State With Self-Care and Ind. Living Dis. With Self-Care Dis. Only With Ind. Living Dis. Only
# ME# % ME% # ME# % ME% # ME# % ME%
U.S. 542,000 23,000 12.8 0.5 87,000 9,000 2.1 0.2 611,000 22,000 14.5 0.5
Alabama 12,000 2,000 12.7 2.4 2,000 1,200 1.8 1.0 15,000 3,000 15.5 3.1
Alaska 1,000 1,000 10.2 7.2 400 500 3.8 4.6 900 1,100 8.0 6.8
Arizona 9,000 3,000 8.7 2.3 1,000 1,000 1.5 1.2 10,000 3,000 10.6 2.4
Arkansas 9,000 3,000 15.0 3.3 1,000 1,000 2.2 1.5 10,000 3,000 15.1 3.6
California 63,000 7,000 14.1 1.3 8,000 2,000 1.8 0.6 50,000 5,000 11.1 1.1
Colorado 6,000 2,000 9.2 3.4 2,000 1,400 2.9 2.1 9,000 3,000 15.3 3.9
Connecticut 5,000 2,000 13.4 4.8 1,000 1,000 2.6 2.8 6,000 3,000 14.8 5.8
Delaware 2,000 2,000 20.7 14.0 200 300 1.8 3.6 900 1,100 8.6 6.6
District of Columbia 300 320 3.9 5.1 500 820 6.4 11.8 1,000 1,000 17.5 12.9
Florida 30,000 5,000 12.1 2.1 5,000 3,000 1.9 0.9 33,000 4,000 13.3 1.5
Georgia 14,000 3,000 9.6 2.1 3,000 1,000 2.2 0.9 29,000 5,000 19.5 2.8
Hawaii 3,000 2,000 19.0 8.9 600 1,400 3.5 5.8 3,000 2,000 17.9 8.9
Idaho 4,000 2,000 14.3 5.8 700 1,300 2.4 3.6 5,000 2,000 15.7 5.7
Illinois 19,000 4,000 13.1 2.9 4,000 2,000 2.7 1.3 19,000 4,000 13.0 2.4
Indiana 10,000 2,000 11.3 2.4 2,000 1,400 1.8 1.1 17,000 4,000 19.0 3.8
Iowa 2,000 1,000 6.6 3.0 400 600 1.4 2.2 4,000 2,000 12.7 5.2
Kansas 6,000 2,000 15.3 5.8 400 550 0.9 1.6 5,000 2,000 13.4 4.3
Kentucky 10,000 3,000 11.6 2.7 1,000 1,000 1.6 1.2 12,000 3,000 13.5 2.6
Louisiana 11,000 3,000 12.6 3.1 2,000 1,500 2.1 1.6 14,000 3,000 15.9 2.9
Maine 2,000 1,400 11.0 7.2 200 340 1.3 3.3 3,000 2,000 24.4 8.1
Maryland 8,000 3,000 13.1 3.9 700 500 1.3 1.0 12,000 3,000 19.8 4.3
Massachusetts 10,000 3,000 14.6 3.3 1,000 1,000 1.7 1.5 12,000 3,000 17.6 3.3
Michigan 16,000 3,000 14.1 2.4 4,000 2,000 3.5 1.7 19,000 4,000 16.3 2.7
Minnesota 9,000 3,000 19.6 6.0 600 400 1.2 1.0 7,000 3,000 13.5 5.7
Mississippi 10,000 3,000 13.3 3.4 2,000 1,400 2.1 1.4 13,000 3,000 17.9 4.0
Missouri 14,000 3,000 16.4 3.2 3,000 2,000 3.2 1.8 14,000 3,000 15.9 3.0
Montana 1,000 1,000 10.2 5.9 300 400 2.0 3.4 2,000 1,300 13.2 7.4
Nebraska 1,000 1,000 6.7 4.4 200 300 1.3 2.0 3,000 2,000 17.7 9.5
Nevada 8,000 3,000 15.7 4.4 800 400 1.5 1.0 7,000 2,000 13.0 3.6
New Hampshire 2,000 2,000 18.9 9.0 0 0 0.0 * 2,000 1,400 13.3 9.5
New Jersey 9,000 3,000 9.5 2.4 3,000 2,100 2.8 2.1 11,000 3,000 10.8 2.9
New Mexico 7,000 3,000 17.4 5.4 700 600 1.8 1.7 6,000 3,000 13.6 6.1
New York 29,000 4,000 13.7 1.9 4,000 2,000 2.0 0.7 33,000 5,000 15.5 2.1
North Carolina 18,000 3,000 12.4 2.2 5,000 2,000 3.4 1.5 19,000 4,000 13.3 2.2
North Dakota 2,000 1,900 25.8 19.0 60 140 1.1 2.8 1,000 1,000 17.9 14.8
Ohio 14,000 2,000 10.6 1.7 2,000 1,000 1.3 0.7 22,000 4,000 16.8 2.8
Oklahoma 9,000 2,000 10.2 2.4 1,000 1,000 1.3 0.8 14,000 3,000 16.2 3.2
Oregon 10,000 3,000 17.6 4.9 1,000 1,000 2.7 1.8 9,000 2,000 15.9 3.7
Pennsylvania 22,000 5,000 13.5 2.8 3,000 2,000 2.1 1.0 28,000 7,000 17.0 3.4
Rhode Island 1,000 1,000 7.7 5.7 800 1,200 5.8 8.3 800 600 5.9 4.1
South Carolina 9,000 3,000 12.6 3.4 2,000 1,300 2.2 1.5 11,000 3,000 15.3 3.4
South Dakota 1,000 1,000 15.7 11.8 50 100 0.6 1.5 1,000 1,000 11.6 10.5
Tennessee 14,000 4,000 11.9 2.8 2,000 1,200 1.7 1.1 19,000 4,000 16.3 2.8
Texas 60,000 8,000 13.5 1.8 7,000 2,000 1.6 0.5 49,000 5,000 11.0 1.1
Utah 2,000 1,000 8.2 3.7 300 400 1.1 1.6 5,000 2,000 17.0 6.6
Vermont 200 200 2.6 2.9 200 300 3.3 3.3 1,000 1,000 15.0 10.1
Virginia 12,000 4,000 12.0 3.3 3,000 2,000 2.9 1.7 15,000 4,000 15.1 3.6
Washington 11,000 3,000 12.8 2.8 3,000 2,000 3.6 2.0 15,000 3,000 16.7 3.4
West Virginia 5,000 2,000 15.3 5.0 600 510 1.7 1.7 7,000 2,000 19.3 5.7
Wisconsin 5,000 2,000 9.7 3.1 300 350 0.6 0.7 10,000 4,000 18.5 6.1
Wyoming 700 660 9.4 9.8 100 300 1.9 4.7 700 630 9.1 9.0
Puerto Rico 12,000 3,000 11.3 2.5 3,000 1,000 2.5 0.9 13,000 2,000 12.2 1.9
Notes: Authors’ calculations using the U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, Public Use Microdata Sample, (2022), which is subject to sampling variability. Slight differences in percentages may appear due to rounding when compared to populations. The margin of error (ME) is based on a 95% confidence level and is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the margin of error is in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate.
*estimate either unavailable or too few sample observations.
Citation: Thomas, N., Paul, S., Bach, S., & Houtenville, A. (2024). Annual Disability Statistics Compendium: 2024 (Table 2.2). Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Institute on Disability.

Table 2.3 Functioning - Civilians with Hearing Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have either Self-Care or Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022

Table 2.3 Functioning - Civilians with Hearing Disabilities Ages 18 to 64 Years Living in the Community who have either Self-Care or Independent Living Disabilities for the United States and States: 2022
State Total With Self-Care Dis. With Independent Living Dis.
# ME# # ME# % ME% # ME# % ME%
U.S. 4,003,000 62,000 469,000 20,000 11.7 0.4 794,000 24,000 19.8 0.5
Alabama 80,000 7,000 9,000 2,000 11.5 2.8 16,000 3,000 19.9 3.5
Alaska 13,000 3,000 2,000 2,000 16.8 10.0 3,000 2,000 21.6 10.6
Arizona 83,000 8,000 8,000 3,000 10.2 3.0 16,000 3,000 19.2 3.7
Arkansas 57,000 6,000 7,000 2,000 12.5 2.9 12,000 3,000 21.3 4.4
California 363,000 15,000 46,000 5,000 12.7 1.2 76,000 7,000 20.9 1.7
Colorado 74,000 6,000 6,000 2,000 8.2 2.4 11,000 3,000 14.3 3.1
Connecticut 32,000 5,000 3,000 1,000 10.6 3.3 8,000 3,000 23.9 7.0
Delaware 12,000 3,000 2,000 2,000 17.8 11.0 3,000 2,000 22.4 12.2
District of Columbia 5,000 2,000 800 1,200 15.7 14.2 700 730 14.5 14.1
Florida 241,000 12,000 28,000 5,000 11.4 2.1 48,000 7,000 20.1 2.5
Georgia 129,000 11,000 14,000 3,000 10.7 2.1 29,000 5,000 22.3 3.3
Hawaii 16,000 5,000 1,000 1,000 8.7 6.1 3,000 2,000 17.1 9.2
Idaho 32,000 5,000 4,000 2,000 11.1 4.2 6,000 2,000 19.5 6.4
Illinois 121,000 9,000 15,000 4,000 12.2 2.7 24,000 4,000 19.5 3.1
Indiana 84,000 6,000 8,000 2,000 9.2 2.2 17,000 3,000 19.6 3.5
Iowa 37,000 5,000 2,000 2,000 6.7 3.5 4,000 2,000 11.8 4.9
Kansas 42,000 5,000 6,000 2,000 14.3 5.0 8,000 3,000 19.8 5.4
Kentucky 86,000 6,000 9,000 3,000 10.2 3.0 16,000 3,000 18.6 3.1
Louisiana 75,000 8,000 10,000 3,000 13.7 3.4 16,000 4,000 21.8 4.2
Maine 26,000 5,000 2,000 1,400 5.9 3.5 3,000 2,000 13.4 4.9
Maryland 56,000 6,000 7,000 2,000 11.7 3.3 11,000 3,000 19.6 4.4
Massachusetts 72,000 7,000 8,000 3,000 10.7 3.1 13,000 3,000 18.8 3.4
Michigan 121,000 8,000 11,000 3,000 9.5 2.4 23,000 4,000 19.5 2.6
Minnesota 66,000 7,000 7,000 3,000 10.4 4.2 10,000 3,000 15.9 4.1
Mississippi 47,000 5,000 6,000